This python wrapper is made by:

  • Karl M. Laundal

  • Christer van der Meeren

  • Angeline G. Burrell (maintainer)

  • Leslie Lamarche

  • Gregory Starr

  • Ashton Reimer

  • Achim Morschhauser

Fortran code by Emmert et al. [2010] 1. Quasi-dipole and modified apex coordinates are defined by Richmond [1995] 2. The code uses IGRF-12 with coefficients valid through 2020 [Thébault et al., 2015] 3.


Emmert, J. T., A. D. Richmond, and D. P. Drob (2010), A computationally compact representation of Magnetic-Apex and Quasi-Dipole coordinates with smooth base vectors, J. Geophys. Res., 115(A8), A08322, doi:10.1029/2010JA015326.


Richmond, A. D. (1995), Ionospheric Electrodynamics Using Magnetic Apex Coordinates, Journal of geomagnetism and geoelectricity, 47(2), 191–212, doi:10.5636/jgg.47.191.


Thébault, E. et al. (2015), International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the 12th generation, Earth, Planets and Space, 67(1), 79, doi:10.1186/s40623-015-0228-9.